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What Is the Sequence of the Digestion of Lipids

[Summary]Reflexology Sequence What is the best reflexology sequence? Reflexology sequence is a specific order of reflexes to make the treatment effective. biochmnotes BIOCHEMISTRY At least 80% of the mass of living organisms is water, and almost all the chemi

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Reflexology Sequence

What Is the Sequence of the Digestion of Lipids

What is the best reflexology sequence? Reflexology sequence is a specific order of reflexes to make the treatment effective.

biochmnotes

BIOCHEMISTRY

At least 80% of the mass of living organisms is water, and almost all the chemical reactions of life take place in aqueous solution. The other chemicals that make up living things are mostly organic macromolecules belonging to the 4 groups proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates or lipids. These macromolecules are made up from specific monomers as shown in the table below. Between them these four groups make up 93% of the dry mass of living organisms, the remaining 7% comprising small organic molecules (like vitamins) and inorganic ions.

Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids

Chemical Digestion

Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and the duodenum through the action of three primary enzymes:

Pepsin, secreted by the stomach.

Trypsin, secreted by the pancreas.

Chymotrypsin, secreted by the pancreas.

These enzymes break down food proteins into polypeptides that are then broken down by various exopeptidases and dipeptidases into amino acids. The digestive enzymes, however, are secreted mainly as their inactive precursors, the zymogens.

Digestion and Absorption of Fats

Digestion and absorption of fats

Most of the fat in the human diet is in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG), which consists of three fatty acids linked to glycerol. In the digestive tract, TAG is hydrolyzed by the enzyme pancreatic lipase, to release free fatty acids and monoglycerides.

Emulsification and digestion

Lipase

A computer-generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig. PDB: 1GPL​.

A lipase (/ˈlaɪpeɪs/, /ˈlɪpeɪs/, /-peɪz/) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).[1] Lipases are a subclass of the esterases.

Lipases perform essential roles in the digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides, fats, oils) in most, if not all, living organisms. Genes encoding lipases are even present in certain viruses.[2][3]

Absorption of Lipids

Once inside the enterocyte, fatty acids and monoglyceride are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum, where they are used to synthesize triglyeride. Beginning in the endoplasmic reticulum and continuing in the Golgi, triglyceride is packaged with cholesterol, lipoproteins and other lipids into particles called chylomicrons. Remember where this is occurring - in the absorptive enterocyte of the small intestine.

Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge

When treating municipal wastewater, the disposal of sludge is a problem of growing importance, representing up to 50% of the current operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant. Although different disposal routes are possible, anaerobic digestion plays an important role for its abilities to further transform organic matter into biogas (60–70 vol% of methane, CH4), as thereby it also reduces the amount of final sludge solids for disposal whilst destroying most of the pathogens present in the sludge and limiting odour problems associated with residual putrescible matter. Anaerobic digestion thus optimises WWTP costs, its environmental footprint and is considered a major and essential part of a modern WWTP. The potential of using the biogas as energy source has long been widely recognised and current techniques are being developed to upgrade quality and to enhance energy use. The present paper extensively reviews the principles of anaerobic digestion, the process parameters and their interaction, the design methods, the biogas utilisation, the possible problems and potential pro-active cures, and the recent developments to reduce the impact of the problems. After having reviewed the basic principles and techniques of the anaerobic digestion process, modelling concepts will be assessed to delineate the dominant parameters. Hydrolysis is recognised as rate-limiting step in the complex digestion process. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion is complex and delicate, involving several bacterial groups, each of them having their own optimum working conditions. As will be shown, these groups are sensitive to and possibly inhibited by several process parameters such as pH, alkalinity, concentration of free ammonia, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, heavy metals, volatile fatty acids and others. To accelerate the digestion and enhance the production of biogas, various pre-treatments can be used to improve the rate-limiting hydrolysis. These treatments include mechanical, thermal, chemical and biological interventions to the feedstock. All pre-treatments result in a lysis or disintegration of sludge cells, thus releasing and solubilising intracellular material into the water phase and transforming refractory organic material into biodegradable species. Possible techniques to upgrade the biogas formed by removing CO2, H2S and excess moisture will be summarised. Special attention will be paid to the problems associated with siloxanes (SX) possibly present in the sludge and biogas, together with the techniques to either reduce their concentration in sludge by preventive actions such as peroxidation, or eliminate the SX from the biogas by adsorption or other techniques. The reader will finally be guided to extensive publications concerning the operation, control, maintenance and troubleshooting of anaerobic digestion plants.

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