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What Does a Water Molecule Look like?

[Summary]Water and its structure The molecule of water A molecule is an aggregation of atomic nuclei and electrons that is sufficiently stable to possess observable properties - and there are few molecules that are more stable and difficult to decompose than

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Water and its structure

The molecule of water

A molecule is an aggregation of atomic nuclei and electrons that is sufficiently stable to possess observable properties — and there are few molecules that are more stable and difficult to decompose than H2O. In water, each hydrogen nucleus is bound to the central oxygen atom by a pair of electrons that are shared between them; chemists call this shared electron pair a covalent chemical bond. In H2O, only two of the six outer-shell electrons of oxygen are used for this purpose, leaving four electrons which are organized into two non-bonding pairs. The four electron pairs surrounding the oxygen tend to arrange themselves as far from each other as possible in order to minimize repulsions between these clouds of negative charge. This would ordinarly result in a tetrahedral geometry in which the angle between electron pairs (and therefore the H-O-H bond angle) is 109.5°. However, because the two non-bonding pairs remain closer to the oxygen atom, these exert a stronger repulsion against the two covalent bonding pairs, effectively pushing the two hydrogen atoms closer together. The result is a distorted tetrahedral arrangement in which the H—O—H angle is 104.5°.

Activity 3 Teacher Guide: It's Just a Phase

It's Just a Phase: Water as a Solid, Liquid, and Gas

In this activity, students will construct models of the way water molecules arrange themselves in the three physical states. Students will understand that matter can be found in three forms or phases (solid, liquid, and gas). Using physical models, students will be able to explain the molecular behavior of ice, water, and water vapor.

WATER MOLECULE

Looking at a water molecule

by Steve Horstmeyer, Meteorologist

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GREATLY ENLARGED WATER MOLECULE

Looking very much like the shape of Mickey Mouse

Because a water molecule has a slight positive charge on one end and a slight
negative charge on the other...the attraction of the opposite charges, (electro-static charges)
creates what is called surface tension, the weak attraction is called a hydrogen bond.

Water is a Polar Molecule | Chapter 5: The Water Molecule and Dissolving | Middle School Chemistry

Water is a Polar Molecule

Key Concepts

The water molecule, as a whole, has 10 protons and 10 electrons, so it is neutral.

In a water molecule, the oxygen atom and hydrogen atoms share electrons in covalent bonds, but the sharing is not equal.

In the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen, the oxygen atom attracts electrons a bit more strongly than the hydrogen atoms.

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