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Polar Body Twins

[Summary]Twin Marian and Vivian Brown, identical twins, photographed by Christopher Michel Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.[1] Twins can be either monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they develop from one zygote, which splits a

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Marian and Vivian Brown, identical twins, photographed by Christopher Michel

Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.[1] Twins can be either monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they develop from one zygote, which splits and forms two embryos, or dizygotic ("fraternal"), meaning that they develop from two different eggs. In fraternal twins, each twin is fertilized by its own sperm cell.[2]

Unusual Types of Twins | Multiples of America

Unusual Types of Twins

In addition to all the different combinations of identical and fraternal multiples, there are some rare types of twins.

Mirror-image Twins

Mirror-image twins occur only in identical twins. In approximately 23 percent of identical twins the egg splits later than usual, most often day seven or beyond. The original right half of the egg becomes one individual and the original left half becomes the other. These twins will often have “mirror images” of their features, such as hair whorls that run clockwise in one and counter clockwise in the other, a birthmark on the right shoulder of one and the left shoulder of the other, etc. There is no specific test for determining if twins are mirror-image. The determination is made by observation only, and the twins must be monozygotic, or identical.

Twins Realm

Most 'twin research' is really medical research performed on twins, rather than research about twins. Because of our genetic similarities identical twins are subjects with a ready-made control group. Identicals share 100% of their genes with their twin.

No matter how carefully a scientist tries to find someone of the same weight, gender, age and other variables, an identical twin is a much closer match for a test subject than someone selected from the general population. This close matching makes research on identical twin subjects and controls very valuable to science.

TIL that there are actually seven different types of twins: Identical, Fraternal, Mirror-Image, Polar Body (Half Identical), Mixed Chromosome, Superfecundation, and Superfetation. : todayilearned

TIL that there are actually seven different types of twins: Identical, Fraternal, Mirror-Image, Polar Body (Half Identical), Mixed Chromosome, Superfecundation, and Superfetation. (nomotc.org)

submitted 3 years ago by fallenseraphim

146 comments

Polar body

First stages of segmentation of a mammalian embryo. Semidiagrammatic. z.p. Zona pellucida. p.gl. Polar bodies. a. Two-cell stage. b. Four-cell stage. c. Eight-cell stage. d, e. Morula stage.

A polar body is a small haploid cell that is formed concomitantly as an egg cell during oogenesis, but which generally does not have the ability to be fertilized. When certain diploid cells in animals undergo cytokinesis after meiosis to produce egg cells, they sometimes divide unevenly. Most of the cytoplasm is segregated into one daughter cell, which becomes the egg or ovum, while the smaller polar bodies only get a small amount of cytoplasm. They frequently die (apoptosis) and disappear, but in some cases they remain and can be important in the life cycle of the organism.[1]

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