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October Manifesto 1905

[Summary]October Manifesto Demonstration 17 October 1905 by Ilya Repin (Russian Museum. St. Petersburg). The October Manifesto (Russian: Октябрьский манифест, Манифест 17 октября), officially The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order (Манифест об ус

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October Manifesto

Demonstration 17 October 1905 by Ilya Repin
(Russian Museum. St. Petersburg).

The October Manifesto (Russian: Октябрьский манифест, Манифест 17 октября), officially The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order (Манифест об усовершенствовании государственного порядка), is a document that served as a precursor to the Russian Empire's first constitution, which would be adopted the next year. The Manifesto was issued by Emperor Nicholas II, under the influence of Sergei Witte, on 30 October [O.S. 17 October] 1905 as a response to the Russian Revolution of 1905. Nicholas strenuously resisted these ideas, but gave in after his first choice to head a military dictatorship,[1]Grand Duke Nicholas, threatened to shoot himself in the head if the Tsar did not accept Witte's suggestion.[1] Nicholas unwillingly agreed, and issued what became known as the October Manifesto, promising basic civil rights and an elected parliament called the Duma, without whose approval no laws were to be enacted in Russia in the future. According to his Memoirs Witte did not force the Tsar to sign the October Manifesto.[2] which was proclaimed in all the churches.[3]

BBC

Tsar Nicholas II had a weak personality and a bad habit of not listening to his people - as demonstrated in 1905 when he ordered his Cossacks [Cossacks: Peasants from southern Russia who were renowned for their military skill - they were later employed by the Tsar. ] to open fire on a peaceful demonstration. The events that occurred afterwards in response to the attack became known as the 1905 Revolution.

Nicholas II and the October Manifesto – Soviet History

The Russia Revolution of 1905 brought to surface the great unrest and uneasiness that had been brewing in Russian society for so long. Among the many things that Russian citizens were in uproar about, an elected legislative body was a key component that was absent in Russian government. However, the October Manifesto of 1905 brought hope to many citizens that liberties would now be enacted and integrated into society.

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