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Name Any Two Little Resources of Delhi Sultanate

[Summary]part1_03 III. The Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate *Muhammad Ghuri's Conquests* == *Causes of Muslim Success* == *Organization of the Delhi Government* == *Mongol Invasions* == *Administration* == *The Problem of Succession* == *The Struggle betw



III. The Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate

*Muhammad Ghuri's Conquests* == *Causes of Muslim Success* == *Organization of the Delhi Government* == *Mongol Invasions* == *Administration* == *The Problem of Succession* == *The Struggle between the Nobles and the Sultan*

[[37]] AFTER the death of Mahmud in 1030 there were occasional incursions into Hindu territory from Ghazni and the Ghaznavid base at Lahore, but no major territorial change took place, and Hindu India enjoyed a respite from foreign invasion for a century and a half. This did not lead, however, to national consolidation, and a number of principalities grew up in different parts of the subcontinent. In the north, the most important were the kingdoms of Delhi and Ajmer, Kanauj, Bundhelkhand, Gujarat, Malwa, and Bengal. Occasionally they would come together for some common purpose, but normally there was no cooperation among them, even in the face of the danger that threatened them from the northwest. Perhaps the relative freedom from Muslim raids during the first part of the twelfth century made them forget their perilous position, but, for whatever reason, their disunity made it possible for a determined leader to deal with them one after the other.

Tughlaq dynasty

History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century Turkic Khaganate 552–744 Western Turkic Eastern Turkic Khazar Khaganate 618–1048 Xueyantuo 628–646 Great Bulgaria 632–668 Danube Bulgaria Volga Bulgaria Kangar union 659–750 Turgesh Khaganate 699–766 Uyghur Khaganate 744–840 Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212 Western Kara-Khanid Eastern Kara-Khanid Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335 Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091 Kimek Khanate
743–1035 Cumania
1067–1239 Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055 Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186 Seljuk Empire 1037–1194 Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231 Naiman Khanate –1204 Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266 Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526 Mamluk dynasty Khilji dynasty Tughlaq dynasty Golden Horde | [7][8][9]1240s–1502 Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517 Bahri dynasty Ottoman Empire 1299–1923 Other Turkic dynasties

in Anatolia
Artuqid dynasty
Saltuqid dynasty
in Azerbaijan
Ahmadili dynasty
Ildenizid dynasty
in Egypt
Tulunid dynasty
Ikhshidid dynasty
in Fars
Salghurid dynasty
in The Levant
Burid dynasty
Zengid dynasty
in Yemen
Rasulid dynasty

Agricultural Production during the Sultanate and Mughal Period

Read this article to learn about the agricultural production in the sultanate period and mughal period! Sultanate period: We have very little information about the economic condition of the people under the Delhi Sultanate. ADVERTISEMENTS: The historians of the period were more interested in the events at the court than in the lives of ordinary …

Delhi, the Capital of Muslim India: 1334

Delhi, India

Ibn Battuta entered India through the high mountains of Afghanistan, following the footsteps of Turkish warriors who, a century earlier, had conquered the Hindu farming people of India and established the Sultanate of Delhi. That first wave of Muslim soldiers looted towns and smashed the images of the gods of the Hindu worshipers. But later warrior kings set up a system to tax, rather than slaughter the peasants. They replaced the local Hindu leaders with Turks from Afghanistan and conquered and united a large area almost to the tip of the subcontinent. But these Muslim sultans in Delhi were not safe. They faced continued opposition from the Hindu majority in India who rebelled against their conquerors, and they were threatened with periodic Mongol invasions from the north. The Chagatay Khan (whom Ibn Battuta visited on his way to India) had invaded India and threatened Delhi, the new capital city about 1323. But the armies of the feisty Sultan Muhammad Tughluq in Delhi had chased them back across the Indus River.



Historical works in Persian began to appear in India in the era of the Delhi Sultanate (q.v.) during the late 13th to 14th centuries. It was in Delhi itself, the capital of this expanding, if habitually unstable, kingdom, that most of the early Persian–language histories were written. However, it was particularly during the preceding Ghaznavid era (977-1186; q.v.), when Muslim armies penetrated deep into the Indian heartland, that poets and scholars, writing in Persian, began settling in northwestern India in significant numbers, founding the Persian-language tradition of scholarship in the subcontinent. This tradition then took root in India after the Ghurids conquered Ḡazni (qq.v., also Ḡazna) and established their capital at Delhi, to be succeeded by the sultans of Delhi (1206-1398). Persian-language scholarship stagnated after Timur destroyed the Delhi Sultanate in 1398, but revived and expanded exponentially during the years of the Timurid-Mughal dynasty (1526-1739). In this later period Indo-Persian historiography became a vibrant, multi-faceted tradition of scholarship, including autobiography, collections of poetry, ethical treatises, belles-lettres, and manuals of technical prose and administration, conversational discourses, and advice literature (divāns, aḵlāq, enšāʾ, malfuẓāt, and naṣiḥat literature), literary and Sufi biographies and anthologies (taḏkeras), gazetteers, and innumerable political histories. These were produced at the Timurid-Mughal court in Agra and Delhi and at the independent courts of Persian-speaking rulers in Bengal, Gujarat, the Deccan (qq.v.) and elsewhere, including semi-autonomous Timurid-Mughal provinces as far south as Madras. Indo-Persian historical literature continued to be produced throughout the 18th century; but, as Muslim political power declined following the collapse of Timurid-Mughal rule, patronage decayed, and simultaneously Urdu displaced Persian, first in verse and then, by the mid-19th century, in prose as well.

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