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fever duration in children

[Summary]Fever and Antipyretic Use in Children Fever in a child is one of the most common clinical symptoms managed by pediatricians and other health care providers and a frequent cause of parental concern. Many parents administer antipyretics even when there


Fever and Antipyretic Use in Children

Fever in a child is one of the most common clinical symptoms managed by pediatricians and other health care providers and a frequent cause of parental concern. Many parents administer antipyretics even when there is minimal or no fever, because they are concerned that the child must maintain a “normal” temperature. Fever, however, is not the primary illness but is a physiologic mechanism that has beneficial effects in fighting infection. There is no evidence that fever itself worsens the course of an illness or that it causes long-term neurologic complications. Thus, the primary goal of treating the febrile child should be to improve the child's overall comfort rather than focus on the normalization of body temperature. When counseling the parents or caregivers of a febrile child, the general well-being of the child, the importance of monitoring activity, observing for signs of serious illness, encouraging appropriate fluid intake, and the safe storage of antipyretics should be emphasized. Current evidence suggests that there is no substantial difference in the safety and effectiveness of acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the care of a generally healthy child with fever. There is evidence that combining these 2 products is more effective than the use of a single agent alone; however, there are concerns that combined treatment may be more complicated and contribute to the unsafe use of these drugs. Pediatricians should also promote patient safety by advocating for simplified formulations, dosing instructions, and dosing devices.

Influenza (Flu)

What Is the Flu Vaccine?

Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for everyone 6 months of age and older. It's usually offered between September and mid-November, but may be given at other times of the year.

The vaccine helps protect people from the flu viruses that experts think will be most common in the upcoming flu season. While the vaccine doesn't completely guarantee against getting sick, someone who's been vaccinated and still gets the flu will have fewer and milder symptoms.

Fever in Infants and Children

For acute fever, doctors can often make a diagnosis without testing. For example, if children do not appear very ill, the cause is usually a viral infection; a respiratory infection if they have a runny nose, wheezing, or a cough; or gastroenteritis if they have diarrhea and vomiting. In such children, the diagnosis is clear, and testing is not needed. Even if no specific symptoms suggest a diagnosis, the cause is still often a viral infection in children who otherwise do not appear very ill. Doctors try to limit testing to children who may have a more serious disorder. The chance of a serious disorder (and thus the need for tests) depends on the child's age, symptoms, and overall appearance, plus the particular disorders the doctor suspects (see Table: Some Common Causes and Features of Fever in Children).

Fever: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Normal body temperature may change during any given day. It is usually highest in the evening. Other factors that may affect body temperature are:

A woman's menstrual cycle. In the second part of this cycle, her temperature may go up by 1 degree or more.

Physical activity, strong emotion, eating, heavy clothing, medicines, high room temperature, and high humidity can all increase body temperature.

Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2 to 24 Months

Objective: To revise the American Academy of Pediatrics practice parameter regarding the diagnosis and management of initial urinary tract infections (UTIs) in febrile infants and young children. Methods: Analysis of the medical literature published since the last version of the guideline was supplemented by analysis of data provided by authors of recent publications. The strength of evidence supporting each recommendation and the strength of the recommendation were assessed and graded. Results: Diagnosis is made on the basis of the presence of both pyuria and at least 50 000 colonies per mL of a single uropathogenic organism in an appropriately collected specimen of urine. After 7 to 14 days of antimicrobial treatment, close clinical follow-up monitoring should be maintained to permit prompt diagnosis and treatment of recurrent infections. Ultrasonography of the kidneys and bladder should be performed to detect anatomic abnormalities. Data from the most recent 6 studies do not support the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent febrile recurrent UTI in infants without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) or with grade I to IV VUR. Therefore, a voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is not recommended routinely after the first UTI; VCUG is indicated if renal and bladder ultrasonography reveals hydronephrosis, scarring, or other findings that would suggest either high-grade VUR or obstructive uropathy and in other atypical or complex clinical circumstances. VCUG should also be performed if there is a recurrence of a febrile UTI. The recommendations in this guideline do not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of care; variations may be appropriate. Recommendations about antimicrobial prophylaxis and implications for performance of VCUG are based on currently available evidence. As with all American Academy of Pediatrics clinical guidelines, the recommendations will be reviewed routinely and incorporate new evidence, such as data from the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) study. Conclusions: Changes in this revision include criteria for the diagnosis of UTI and recommendations for imaging.

1 Minute Read: Types of Fever Differential Diagnosis

Our monthly 1 minute read post. This month, we discuss fevers, and how to detect their cause.

[Editor: Admin]
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